The KRAS gene encodes the human cellular homolog of a transforming gene isolated from the Kirsten rat sarcoma virus. The RAS proteins are GDP/GTP-binding proteins that act as intracellular signal transducers. The most well-studied members of the RAS (derived from 'RAt Sarcoma' virus) gene family include KRAS, HRAS (190020), and NRAS (164790). These genes encode immunologically related proteins with a molecular mass of 21 kD and are homologs of rodent sarcoma virus genes that have transforming abilities. While these wildtype cellular proteins in humans play a vital role in normal tissue signaling, including proliferation, differentiation, and senescence, mutated genes are potent oncogenes that play a role in many human cancers (Weinberg, 1982; Kranenburg, 2005).

Ανάλυση Μεταλλαγών Οικογένειας Ras (KRAS & NRAS)

Στη θεραπεία του μεταστατικού καρκίνου του παχέος εντέρου, μελέτες έχουν δείξει ότι απαιτείται η απουσία ενεργοποιητικών μεταλλαγών στα γονίδια KRAS και NRAS της οικογένειας RAS (εξώνια 2, 3, και 4 και στα δύο γονίδια) προκειμένου η θεραπεία με μονοκλωνικά αντισώματα ενάντια στον EGFR να έχει αποτελεσματικότητα.


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