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DPD deficiency (DPYD)

DPD deficiency (DPYD)

5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is a fluorinated pyrimidine analogue commonly used in combination chemotherapy regimens for patients with breast, colorectal, lung, and other malignancies. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme encoded by the DPYD gene, is the rate-limiting step in pyrimidine catabolism and deactivates more than 80% of standard doses of 5FU and the oral 5FU prodrug capecitabine.

True deficiency of DPD affects approximately 5% of the overall population. In these patients, the lack of enzymatic activity increases the half-life of the drug, resulting in excess drug accumulation and toxicity.In addition, 3% to 5% of the population has a partial DPD deficiency due to sequence variations in DPYD gene, which potentially limits their ability to fully metabolize the drug, thereby resulting in toxicity.

The IVS14+1G>A mutation in intron 14 coupled with exon 14 deletion (known as DPYD*2A) is the most well known variant resulting in partial DPD deficiency and 5FU toxicity.

References:

  1. Lee A, Ezzeldin H, Fourie J, Diasio R. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: impact of pharmacogenetics on 5-fluorouracil therapy. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. Aug 2004;2(8):527-32.
  2. Gross E, Busse B, Riemenschneider M, Neubauer S, Seck K, Klein HG, et al. Strong association of a common dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene polymorphism with fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity in cancer patients. PLoS One. 2008;3(12):e4003.
  3. Amstutz U, Froehlich TK, Largiadèr CR. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene as a major predictor of severe 5-fluorouracil toxicity. Pharmacogenomics. Sep 2011;12(9):1321-36.
  4. Kim SR, Park CH, Park S, Park JO, Lee J, Lee SY. Genetic polymorphisms associated with 5-Fluorouracil-induced neurotoxicity. Chemotherapy. 2010;56(4):313-7.
  5. van Kuilenburg AB, Haasjes J, Richel DJ, et al. Clinical implications of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency in patients with severe 5-fluorouracil-associated toxicity: identification of new mutations in the DPD gene. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;4705-4712.
  6. Schwab M, Zanger UM, Marx C, Schaeffeler E, Klein K, Dippon J, et al. Role of genetic and nongenetic factors for fluorouracil treatment-related severe toxicity: a prospective clinical trial by the German 5-FU Toxicity Study Group. J Clin Oncol. May 1 2008;26(13):2131-8.
Category
Department
Medical specialty
Required sample
Peripheral Blood (EDTA)
Quantity
Turn around time
Genes
Technology
Sequencing